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Prosiding Seminar Nasional Menuju Pertanian berkelanjutan.

Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Bengkulu. 12 September 2012.

Halaman 205-213. ISBN 9786029071078

 

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Wiryono

Jurusan Kehutanan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Bengkulu

The Department of Forestry, the Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Bengkulu

wiryonogood@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Agricultural revolution that started ten thousand years ago has changed drastically the surface of the earth. Many natural ecosystems have been converted into farm lands or agroecosystems. The fundamental change brought about by agriculture is the simplification of ecosystem structure which in turn causes the reduction of ecosystem functions or services. High diversity of plants and animals in natural ecosystems has been drastically reduced into several, even single species plantation.  The abundance of one species of crop in monoculture and the absence of predators increase the number of pests, so farmers have to use synthetic pesticides to control them. The disruption of material cycle in monoculture reduces the replenishment soil nutrient, so farmers must use inorganic fertilizers. Applying a large amount of synthetic pesticides and inorganic fertilizers to the crops and the soil, agriculture is the main source of environmental pollution. The use of water excessively for irrigation and the clearence of forest in steep land for farm land cause detrimental hydrological impacts.  Agriculture also causes soil degradation. The agricultural practices that drastically change ecosystem structure are not sustainable and must therefore be replaced by sustainable agriculture based on ecological principles. Agroecosystem must be brought back closer to natural ecosystem by: (1) increasing ecosystem structure through increasing the diversity of species and growth form of plants and increasing landscape heterogeniety, (2) improving material cycles and (3) conserving soil and water. Bringing back agroecosystems to natural ecosystems will bring back ecosystem functions and reduce the detrimental environmental impacts of agriculture.

Keywords: ecological principles, sustainable agriculture.

Artikel lengkap dalam Bahasa Indonesia dalam PDF dapat diunduh di My Articles in Seminars

Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian Kehutanan Palembang

2 Oktober 2013.

 ISBN: 978 – 602 – 98588 – 2 – 2

Wiryono

Jurusan Kehutanan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Bengkulu

wiryonogood@yahoo.com

ABSTRAK

Konversi hutan alam hujan tropis menjadi hutan tanaman secara drastis menyederhanakan kompleksitas struktur hutan dan mengurangi komposisi jenis penyusun hutan. Perubahan ini menimbulkan konsekuensi ekologis, antara lain menurunnya keragaman hayati, meningkatnya serangan hama dan penyakit tanaman dan potensi penurunan kesuburan tanah. Penerapan prinsip-prinsip ekologi dapat dilakukan untuk  mengurangi dampak ekologis hutan tanaman. Kompleksitas struktur hutan dan keragaman hayati dapat ditingkatkan dengan mempertahankan dan menambah jalur hutan alam yang terhubung satu sama lain. Jalur hutan alam ini berfungsi sebagai habitat berbagai jenis hewan, termasuk penyerbuk tanaman dan predator yang dapat mengendalikan populasi hama dan penyakit tanaman. Kesuburan tanah dapat dipertahankan dengan mengembalikan seresah dan limbah kayu dan kulit pohon ke tanah.

Kata kunci: hutan alam, hujan tropis, ekologi.

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PROCEEDINGS
THE 3rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM FOR
SUSTAINABLE HUMANOSPHERE [ISSH]-
A Forum of the Humanosphere Science School [HSS] 2013

Wiryono* and Yansen

Department of Forestry, University of Bengkulu, Jalan Kandang Limun, Bengkulu, 38371, Indonesia

*Corresponding author: wiryonogood@yahoo.com

Abstract

The total forest area constitutes 46% of land area of Bengkulu Province. Of the forest area, 77% is conservation and protection forests where tree cutting is not allowed, so these forests are perceived by local people and local government as hindrance to economic development.  Currently forestry sector contributes little to the economy of Bengkulu.  In the past, several forest concession companies operated in production forest.  But their practices were not sustainable so their permits were not renewed by the Ministry of Forestry.  A new concession company is now operating in Bengkulu’s production forest.  Much of production forest area has been neglected for many years, so some of which has been occupied illegally by local people as well as plantation companies.  Much of the protection forest has been cleared for plantation too. Even the most guarded forest, the conservation forest, also suffers encroachment.  Deforestation and degradation of forest will continue unless fundamental measures are taken to develop sustainable forest management. Managing forest in a developing country is essentially managing people. So, we must work to tackle the social aspects of forest management. First, we must hold continuous dialog among stake holders to have common understanding on the need for sustainable forest management. Second, we must improve the implementation of social forestry and forest rehabilitation programs which have been conducted. Third we must enforce the laws strictly for those illegally cut trees or occupy forest areas. Finally we should accelerate the creation of forest management units and empower the existing one. To achieve sustainable forest management in Bengkulu is a very challenging task, requiring concerted efforts of all stakeholders.

 

KeywordsSustainable forest management, Bengkulu

Full article in PDF is available in My Articles in Seminars

 

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Budidaya Pertanian.

Urgensi dan Strategi pengendalian ALih Fungsi Lahan Pertanian halaman 85-100.

Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Bengkulu. Bengkulu. Tahun 2011.

ISBN 978-602-19247-0-9

 

 

Wiryono

Jurusan Kehutanan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Bengkulu

e-mail : wiryonogood@yahoo.com

ABSTRAK

Alih fungsi lahan pertanian pangan menimbulkan kekhawatiran akan menurunnya produksi pangan yang pada gilirannya akan mengancam ketahanan pangan. Dengan sudut pandang ekologis, makalah ini meninjau pengubahan tutupan lahan oleh manusia sejak evolusi pertanian hingga saat ini dan dampaknya bagi keberlanjutan hidup manusia. Dalam ekosistem, manusia merupakan komponen biotik yang menempati posisi sebagai heterotrof, yaitu organisme yang memperoleh energi dengan cara memakan organisme lain yaitu

tumbuhan dan hewan. Dengan menguasai ilmu dan teknologi manusia mengubah tutupan lahan sesuai dengan kebutuhannya. Semakin banyak jumlah manusia dan semakin tinggi teknologi yang dikuasainya maka semakin besar pula perubahan yang dilakukan. Evolusi pertanian menyebabkan berubahnya ekosistem alami menjadi lahan pertanian atau agroekosistem dan mengubah pola hidup berpindah menjadi menetap. Akhirnya terbentuklah kota dengan lingkungan yang berbeda drastis dari ekosistem alami. Dengan adanya konsentrasi kekuasaan dan uang di kota, maka sumberdaya alam dari agroekosistem dan ekosistem alami di sekitarnya disedot oleh kota. Maka terjadilah urbanisasi. Semakin maju suatu negara semakin banyak proporsi penduduknya yang tinggal di kota. Pertumbuhan wilayah perkotaan telah menyebabkan menyusutnya lahan pertanian subur di pinggir kota karena petani memperoleh lebih banyak uang dengan menjual tanahnya

daripada menanaminya dengan tanaman pangan. Menyusutnya lahan pertanian pangan ini bukan hanya menurunkan produksi pangan tetapi juga menghilangkan jasa-jasa lingkungan yang nilainya tak terhitung karena jika lingkungan rusak kegiatan ekonomi manusia akan terhenti. Lingkungan perkotaan bukanlah ekosistem mandiri yang berkelanjutan (sustainable). Keberlanjutan hidup manusia sebagai heterotrof mutlak memerlukan lahan pertanian pangan. Strategi pengendalian alih fungsi lahan harus meliputi pengendalian

pertumbuhan penduduk dan pembentukan pandangan hidup ramah lingkungan yang

menghargai jasa-jasa ekosistem.

 

Kata kunci: alih fungsi lahan, tinjauan ekologis

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Jurnal Penelitian UNIB XVI No 1:1-5. Tahun 2010.

ISSN 0852-405X

 Wiryono and Ilham Mides Yetti.

Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu

wiryonogood@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Tropical rainforest is well known for its very high diversity of plant and animals. High rate of deforestation, however, has threatened this diversity. Reforestation using few species has created forest stand quite different in species composition than the natural forest. This study was aimed at measuring family diversity of forest floor arthropods in Pinus merkusii plantation forest and natural forest nearby in Talang Donok Sub-District, Lebong Regency, Bengkulu Province. This study found more families as well as individuals of forest floor arthropods in natural forest (131 individuals from 16 families) than in pine plantation forest (53 individuals from 7 families). However, the Simpson indexes diversity were almost the same, namely 0.67 in natural forest and 0.61 in pine plantation. The two sites had low similarity index of Jaccard, which was 44%, but high similarity index of  Ellenberg, which was 90%.   The second index was considered a better indicator because it took into account not only the number of families but but also their abundance.

Keywords:  Soil arthropod diversity, pine plantation, Bengkulu Province

Full article in PDF is available in My Journal Articles

Jurnal Penelitian Universitas Bengkulu XIV(2):110-115. Tahun 2008.

ISSN 0852-405X

 

Meiyentrinita dan Wiryono (wiryonogood@yahoo.com)

JURUSAN KEHUTANAN UNIVERSITAS BENGKULU

ABSTRAK

Hutan hujan tropis di Indonesia memiliki kekayaan jenis burung yang tinggi, tetapi kekayaan jenis tersebut terancam oleh rusaknya hutan dan perdagangan burung liar. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis, jumlah, asal dan status hukum burung yang diperdagangkan dan legalitas perdagangan di Kota Padang, Provinsi Sumatera Barat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan di Kota Padang terdapat 30 kios penjual burung, dengan jumlah jenis yang diperdagangan adalah 40 yang terdiri dari 16 famili dan 4 ordo. Selama bulan Januari dan Februari 2007 pedagang membeli burung sebanyak  3122  ekor dan menjual burung sebanyak 2680 ekor. Sebagian besar pedagang membeli burung hasil tangkapan di hutan dari penjual yang tidak memiliki izin penangkapan. Sebagian jenis burung termasuk jenis yang dilindungi.

Kata kunci: perdagangan burung, ancaman keanekaragaman hayati

Artikel lengkap dalam bentuk PDF dapat didownload dari My Journal Articles

 

Jurnal Penelitian Universitas Bengkulu XV (1): 26-29.

Tahun 2009. ISSN 0852-405X

Soepono and Wiryono

Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu

wiryonogood@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Coal strip mining destroyed forest ecosystem and converted into barren land. Mined land reclamation is aimed at restoring the original ecosystem. Community structure and species composition are some of ecosystems to be considered in mined land reclamation. Over time, plant and animal species compositions in reclaimed mined land are expected to approach the original ones. The objective of this study were to determine the family diversity of soil surface arthropods in recently reclaimed coal mined land and compare it with that of natural forest nearby.  Results showed that each mined site had between 9 to 14 families of Arthropods, while the natural forest had only 7 families.The Simpson’s Index of Diversity in natural forest was 0.67, slightly higher than the mined sites, which were between 0.57 to 0.64.  The Jaccard Index of Similarity between mined sites and natural forest Arthropods was low, between 20.0 to 25.0 percent.

Keywords: coal mined, Arthropods, biodiversity

Full article in PDF is available in My Journal Articles